Small moth with wingspread of 25 - 30 mm. Moth body is covered with long white bristles. Wings are white, sometimes marked with dark black or brown spots.
Hyphantria Cunea larva is covered with white hair. The pupa overwinters in the upper soil layers or leaves pulp. Pupation begins early spring at 9 °C. The moth females are very fertile; they lay about 600 eggs in groups. The larva development takes about 30-50 days, after which they crawl away.
Larva are active during night time, during the day they hide in huge hair-covered clusters. During the summer might develop till two generations of Hyphantria cunea moth. Most gamaging is larva stage, feeds with horticultures leaves and has extreme apetite.
Fall Webworm moth lays hair-covered light yellow eggs on upper-side of leave in hair-covered clusters. Eggs hatch in approximately one week.
Larvae vary in colors, first pale yellow with 2 black rows along body, head capsule coloration also varies depending whether larvae lives in north or south, but usually are greenish with a dusky broad stripe along back with a yellow stripe along its side. Head coloration differs. Adult larvae has maximum 35 mm long. Young larvae feed on the leaf upper side, when grows consumes whole leaf. Larval stage lasts 4-6 weeks.
During experiments was found that one caterpilar of 6-th age might daily consume about 435 mm2 fresh ash leaves, 7-th age – 814 мм2. Repeated defoliation causes host plant death.
Foliage reducing to 20% causes yield reducing to 5-10%. At leaves reducing to 50% yiled reduces to 50-55%, and when leaves are eaten 75% there is practically no yield. Six-seven moth nests for one fruit tree of medium size can completely destroy its leaves.
Hyphantria cunea moth is silkworm competitor. In the growing (breeding) areas of silkworm it might completely destroy its food supply.
Hyphantria Cunea Drury infestations are most common on trees growing in open areas, such as along roadsides, in yards and on forest edges
This moth is considered about most polyphagous, through hall world it has about 636 species. The moth feeds with any type of deciduous tree, by chewing its leaves causing defoliation.
Fall webworm larvae skeletonize and eat leaves in a created protection tent-web that is enlarged because during larva growth it needs more food. When fall webworm caterpillars are small, they feed on the upper surfaces of leaves, causing the leaves to die and turn brown. Larger caterpillars consume everything except the large veins and midribs of leaves. As the larvae grow, they expand the web to enclose more foliage. Skins cast off by the caterpillars when they molt, fecal pellets and dead leaves accumulate in the web, giving it a messy appearance.
Hyphantria Cunea Drury does not kill the tree but it reduces its aesthetic and ornamental value by damaging it. Fall webworm control is necessary because although the webs are unsightly, defoliation by fall webworm usually causes little harm to the tree. The fall webworm feeds on foliage late in the summer, after most photosynthesis has been completed. The trees are already preparing for winter dormancy, so few energy reserves or nutrients are lost. Populations of fall webworm rarely persist in a localized area for more than 2 to 3 years. Persistent infestations on individual trees may eventually cause dieback of individual branches, but trees that are reasonably healthy rarely suffer serious injury from fall webworm feeding.
The methods can be divided in few methods:
First of all remove hair-covered clusters with larva. During the autumn-winter period for pupa liquidation, fruit tree peeled bark is removed, cleared and burned.
Fall Webworm control with chemical treatment:
Chemical treatment moth control includes insecticide spraying of infected trees, bushes and all vegetation within 50 meters from infected plant. Insecticide spraying of all damaged by the moth pest tree species, that grow along roads and railways, in forest and young unfruitful garden at the larva appearance.
Insecticide has to be used during July; it is most effective if applied while caterpillars are young. Cover well with insecticide only larva webs and associated foliage, the not damaged parts do not need to be covered with insecticide.
Clothes moth traps will help you to control fall webworm and tree health. But if you have decided to use insecticides, a quite good way to manage the pest, remember that insecticides are poisons so be careful and follow safety precautions during use.
Applied different bacterial and viral agents that cause larva disease and death. Natural enemies generally fall webworm control populations in check, but other fall webworm control measures may be needed when webs occur on ornamental or landscape trees. When the webs are accessible, they can be pruned out. Webs and caterpillars can be burned, buried or destroyed by soaking in a bucket of soapy water for a few days. Often, it may be possible fall webworm control by tearing the web apart with a rake or a strong blast of water from a garden hose. To minimize defoliation, webs should be destroyed while caterpillars are still small.
Fall Webworm control can be performed by insecticides or pheromone traps. The difference is that pheromone traps are absolutely harmless and have to be placed before mating period that way the pest insect will not even begin to lay eggs. Insecticides are used for fall webworm control when larval stage and started to feed with the tree.
Sex pheromone baited traps are an essential tool for monitoring and detection of invasive species. In addition to monitoring and detection, sex pheromones are being used to control insect pests in many different ways, including mating disruption, mass trapping and lure and kill, have an increasing role in biosecurity. Fall Webworm control by mating disruption has been used successfully for suppression many times. Another possible application of the sex pheromone for the eradication of fall webworm is through the use of lure and kill.
Fall Webworm control using pheromone traps is less time consuming and most efficient for Hyphantria Cunea Drury detection – are used traps with artificial sex pheromone. Clothes moth traps are hanged when air temperature average daily is of 15 °С at the crown periphery damaged by the pest on the height of 1,5 – 2 m. In industrial gardens pheromone traps have to be placed – 1 pheromone trap for 5 hectares, along roadsided plants with an interval of 500 m from one another, and in localities 1 trap for 20 gardens. Duration of survey 30 days. Moth accounting and sampling have to be done not less than once a week.
Use: Open the packaging imediately before use. Put the dispenser in the center of the trap adhesive surface. Remove the used package from use zone of the dispenser.
|Main pheromone component:||1Z,3Z,6Z-cis9,10-epo-21:Hy -1|
|Additional components:||Z3,Z6-cis9,10-epo-21:Hy - 1|
|Carrier (dispenser)||Butyl rubber, natural rubber.|
Three layers of airtight pellicle (polyethylene / aluminum / paper)
Conditions and terms of keeping:
from +10C° till +20С° – 6 months
from +4C° till +10С° – 12 months
from 0C° till +4С° – 24 months
at -18С° - 36 months and more.
Note: These terms are guaranteed in case the package is not damaged. Guarantee term of dispenser action in the field is of 4-6 weeks.