This moth is recognized by grayish brown color forewings with silvery-gray markings. Back wings are brown.
Grapholita funebrana Male genitalia - characterized by valve ventral margin thorntike projection.
Grapholita funebrana Female genitalia - characterized by rounded sterigma, ductus bursae irregular aclerite, and two long, curved corpus bursae thornlike signa.
After mating grapholita funebrana female lays singly about 40-85 flattened and whitish eggs, with diameter about 0.7 mm.
First generation females lay egg on fruits, much rarely on underside of crop leaves. Second generation female lays eggs on already ripening fruits. Egg stage lasts for 7-11 days.
In Italy, it has three generations per year, while in many areas of central and eastern Europe, it has one or two.
Larva has 12-15 mm long and dirty-white color. Late instar larvae – red, with reddish-pink abdomen. Dark-brown head and yellowish brown protoracic shield. Plum fruit moth anal shield is light brown with dark mottling. An anal comb is present with 4-10.
The pest has small teeth. Early instars are whitish with a black head and prothoracic shield. After hatching larva tunnels into fruit towards petiole. When it ritches petiole, gnaw the vascular system, this way disrupting nutrients flow.
Grapholita funebrara larva damage the stone of young fruits, in instar stage – gnaw a cavity in fruit pulp around the bone feeling it with excrements. Larva period of development lasts for 17-30 days, overwinters being in the last age. Pupates during April middle –end. Pupa is yellow-brown, 6-8 mm long, stage lasts for 15-33 days.
Grapholita funebrana is an oligophagous species, feeding on several hosts fruits typically within Rosaceae plant family: plum, cherry, apricot, blackthorn, cherry plum, peach, rose, crataegus (hawthorn).
Pheromone traps are used in plum orchards for baby-food production for their great effect and absolute harmless.
Control of grapholita funebrana using the false-trail following technique or sexual disorientation was proved to be the most effective and harmless. Behavior-modifying pheromone traps is used for environmentally safe grapholita funebrana management and has become one of the most important instruments for controlling the pest in orchards.
Pheromone traps have to be placed every 5 acres in open field during blooming period, the access to entrance should be free for the pest access. The fruit fly traps have to be positioned in parallel with wind direction for a better result.
Fruit fly traps have to be placed in the center of the orchard and at the edge of the area you wanna protect from the pest insect Grapholita funebrana. That type of positioning will help you determine whether pest insect comes from inside of the orchard or is a new comer.
In case you found the place where they come from or overwinter, examine these places separately by placing and checking the pheromone traps more often.
Use: Open the packaging immediately before use. Put the dispenser in trap center on adhesive surface. Remove the used package from use zone of the dispenser.
Main pheromone component: E3,Z8,Z11-14:oAc – 95
Additional components: E3,Z8-14:oAc – 5
Carrier (dispenser) – Butyl rubber, natural rubber.
Three layers of airtight pellicle (polyethylene / aluminum / paper)
Conditions and terms of keeping:
from +10C° till +20С° – 6 months
from +4C° till +10С° – 12 months
from 0C° till +4С° – 24 months
at -18С° - 36 months and more.
Note: These terms are guaranteed in case the package is not damaged. Guarantee term of dispenser action in the field is of 4-6 weeks.